A new type of polymeric rheology modifier was synthesized by suspension polymerization, and the effect of rheology modifier on the rheological properties of oilbased drilling fluids was investigated. Us4209409a us05907,470 us90747078a us4209409a us 4209409 a us4209409 a us 4209409a us 90747078 a us90747078 a us 90747078a us 4209409 a us4209409 a us 4209409a authority us united states prior art keywords ppb drilling fluid slurry bentonite drilling prior art date 19751009 legal status the legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Work undertaken to investigate the health hazards associated with the use of this technology, and the recommended control measures, are described. The successful completion of an oil well and its cost depend to a. Drilling fluid is a major factor in the success of the drilling. Environmental protection agency epa has been studying reserve pit contents to determine whether oilfield. With the addition of nanoparticles it is possible to facilitate insitu control of the drilling fluid rheology, increasing the hydraulic efficiency. In this criteria, fluids are, classified as being waterbased mud fresh. The effect of concentration of bt, pac, and cncs on the rheological and filtration properties of paccncbtwdfs was investigated. Composition and properties of drilling and completion fluids. However, with increasing production from nonconventional reservoirs, the stability and effectiveness of traditional drilling. Other than the fluid water or oil or both phase, the solids, chemicals and polymers that are used in designing a fluid play an important role in the functional behaviour of the fluids.
A utility calculation model of drilling fluids density and esd was proposed, which can predict the hthp density and esd. Aade drilling fluids technical conference abstract. The density of drilling fluid is often affected by hthp, the careful research on the drilling fluids density at hthp is very important for precisely predicting esd as well as controlling the downhole pressure. Long considered the mud bible for the oil and gas professional for over 60 years, this revised reference presents the service provider and operator with full disclosure on the many. Green beans phaseolus vulgaris and sweet corn zea mays var. Drilling fluids play a key role in all drilling operations, but they get a greater relevance in deepwater environments where the technological challenges of drilling at these extreme. The main body of the book deals with the many aspects of the subject while the extensive appendices have been expanded and brought uptodate to cover the latest developments in drilling and drilling fluids technology.
This book is a treatise on the drilling of wells and the part played by drilling fluids. The desirable properties of rotary drilling fluid in the technique of boring oil wells are considered. Structures and rheological properties of organosepiolite in oilbased drilling fluids. Cationic surfactant ctab a multipurpose additive in polymer. Emulsifiers used in designing emulsion based drilling fluids. There are two basic models for describing the rheology of drilling fluids viz. When the invasion of drilling, completion and workover fluids is reduced to as low a level as possible, problems with mechanically unstable formations, differential sticking and lost circulation are also greatly reduced.
Progressing cavity pumps, downhole pumps and mudmotors, 2005. However, emulsion stability which is indicated by the resistance of the chemical emulsifier against contaminant anhydrite, cement, sodium chloride, ions of calcium and magnesium and others is always a concern. Long considered the mud bible for the oil and gas professional for over 60 years, this revised reference presents the service provider and operator with full disclosure on the many drilling and completion fluid. Clear brine fluids have been in the industry since the 1950s, and since inception, different base brines have been utilized to maintain different densities. Drilling fluids play a key role in all drilling operations, but they get a greater relevance in deepwater environments where the technological challenges of drilling at these extreme conditions generate significant operational risks as well as very high costs during the development of this kind of fields. These models are used to characterize flow properties in an effort to determine the ability of a fluid to perform specific functions 14. This research aims to develop low cost, sustainable, environmentally friendly, and high performance waterbased drilling fluids wdfs using bentonite bt, polyanionic cellulose pac, and cellulose nanocrystals cncs. This specification covers physical properties and test procedures for materials manufactured for use in oil and gaswell drilling fluids. Effect of cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide, a cationic surfactant, on rheology. Study and application of nanomaterials in drilling fluids. Offshore drilling presents a much more challenging environment to produce oil and gas, and as such, various specialized technologies have been developed for offshore drilling and production in order to produce in such harsh environments. Abstract drilling fluids muds play a vital role in the drilling of oil and gas wells. The materials covered are barite, haematite, bentonite, nontreated bentonite, ocmagrade bentonite, attapulgite, sepiolite, technicalgrade lowviscosity carboxymethylcellulose cmc. Cellulose nanocrystals and polyanionic cellulose as.
The rheology and performance of geothermal spring water. The loss of circulation is a big problem in drilling operations. Journal of environmental quality abstract effects of. Abstract occasionally the drilling fluid pressure exceeds the fracturing pressure and drilling fluid is lost to the formation. Application of nanotechnology in drilling fluids for the oil and gas industry has been a focus of several recent studies. How the drilling fluids can be made more efficient by using. This study was designed to provide a qualitative assessment of a series offield sites in the gulfofmexico for the office of water, with an indication of the potential hazards associated with the field applicationuse of syntheticbased drilling fluids sbf. Study on the effect of polymeric rheology modifier on the. Pdf study and application of nanomaterials in drilling fluids. Oilbased drilling fluids obdfs have a strong wellbore stabilization effect, but little attention has been paid to the formation. Drilling fluids and reserve pit toxicity journal article. Introduction iadc international association of drilling.
It was found that a combination of largeflake go and powdered go in a 3. In a wellknown field in southern europe, the tophole sections, characterized by highly fractured carbonate formation, the operator successfully and safely drilled two wells with an engineered viscoelastic waterbased drilling fluid that highly contributed to minimize formation losses and reduce environmental impact across the surface aquifer. Drilling fluids serve many applications in the oildrilling process, including the removing of cuttings, drill bit cooling and the prevention of fluid transfer to and from the rock strata. In a time when drilling efficiencies are significant, the advancement of conventional clear brine systems has led to both economic and technological breakthroughs. Tight sandstone reservoir with welldeveloped natural fractures has a complex pore structure where pores and pore throats have a wide range of diameters. Classifications of drilling fluids has been attempted in many ways, often producing more confusion than insight. Experimental investigation of hole cleaning in directional.
Cellulose nanocrystals and polyanionic cellulose as additives. Selection of suitable drilling fluids and maintenance of their properties within the specification are critical aspect of successful oil and gas well drilling. Similar to drilling fluids are socalled completion fluids that are used to finish the well after drilling is completed. Us5707939a us08531,706 us53170695a us5707939a us 5707939 a us5707939 a us 5707939a us 53170695 a us53170695 a us 53170695a us 5707939 a us5707939 a us 5707939a authority us united states prior art keywords drilling fluid fluid continuous phase silicone oil prior art date 19950921 legal status the legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion.
However, with increasing production from nonconventional reservoirs, the. These muds are typically complex chemical mixtures formulated to perform a variety of functions under a. In geotechnical engineering, drilling fluid, also called drilling mud, is used to aid the drilling of boreholes into the earth. Wall slip is a common problem during rheology measurements of drilling fluids and is defined as a difference between the velocity of. Cationic surfactant ctab a multipurpose additive in. They provide primary well control of subsurface pressures by a combination of density and any additional pressure acting on the fluid column annular or surface imposed. Drilling fluids are now classified as exempt under the resource conservation and recovery act rcra hazardous waste laws. The power law concepts of k and n have appeared too abstract for use in anything other than pressure loss or hole cleaning modelling. Rheological properties of bentonitefree waterbased drilling fluids with novel polymer viscosifier. Composition and properties of drilling and completion fluids, seventh edition, delivers the most uptodate information on drilling fluid choices and techniques. A field application of nanoparticlebased invert emulsion. These muds are typically complex chemical mixtures formulated to perform a variety of functions under a wide.
Drilling fluids are mixtures of natural and synthetic chemical compounds used to cool and lubricate the drill bit, clean the hole bottom, carry cuttings to the surface, control formation pressures. Drilling fluids mud happens to be one of these developed technologies used. Drilling fluid additives drilling fluid chemicals impact. Lvt, technicalgrade highviscosity carboxymethylcellulose cmchvt, starch. Unlike products used to remediate losses, these preventative solutions reduce nonproductive time and preserve wellbore stability throughout the drilling processhelping to improve ultimate recoveries as a result. An analysis of the problem of elimination of cuttings by differential settling with reclamation of the colloidal content of clay dispersions shows that viscosity should be lowered as much as possible when the density is held constant. One classification scheme, given here, is based only on the mud composition by singling out the component that clearly defines the function and performance of the fluid.
T1 effect of nanoparticles on the modifications of drilling fluids properties. Guanzheng zhuang, zepeng zhang, hao yang, jianjie tan. A description of the various levels of expertise, as defined by the api for a drilling fluid specialist are covered. Drilling fluid is one of the major substances used when drilling a well, as it serves numerous purposes such as lubrication and cooling. May 24, 2017 drilling fluids are designed to assist drilling by minimizing reservoir damage and increasing productivity of pay zone. The main criteria for the classification of the drilling fluids is, based on the primary contributor of the continuous or dispersant phase. One of the functions of drilling mud is to carry cuttings out of the hole. Drilling and fracturing fluids can interact with reservoir rock and cause formation damage that impedes hydrocarbon production. Newtonian true fluids where the ratio of shear stress to shear rate or viscosity is constant, e. Our project conducts an analysis on the technologies and controversies of offshore drilling. Jul 16, 2004 abstract drilling fluids muds play a vital role in the drilling of oil and gas wells. Effect of nanoparticles on the modifications of drilling.
Abstract accurate knowledge of drilling fluid behavior under actual conditions is required to maximize operational efficiency and to minimize cost and drilling fluid related risks on extreme highpressure hightemperature hpht wells. Drilling fluids serve many applications in the oildrilling process, including the removing of cuttings, drill bit cooling and the prevention of fluid transfer to. In petroleum engineers guide to oil field chemicals and fluids second edition, 2015. The following discussion is an overview of the operation of drilling fluids at the rig site, giving an insight to those less versed in the art. Drilling fluids serve many objectives in a drilling process, including the elimination of cuttings, lubricating and cooling the drill bits, supporting the stability of the hole and. Large holes and high flow rates result in very large. This chapter focuses on the functions, composition, and properties of drilling fluids. Graphene oxide go performs well as a filtration additive in waterbased drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0. A fluid is, then pumped inside the drilling string, known as drilling fluid, which, through holes at the end of the drill bit, returns to the surface through the annular.
Pdf selection and application of drilling fluids researchgate. Abstract drilling is one of the stages of oil exploration, carried out after the prospecting phase, and involves all. Journal of environmental quality abstract environmental. This chapter is a general introduction to the composition, functions, properties, and systems used to drill oil and gas wells. A utility calculation model of drilling fluids density and esd was proposed, which. Standard american petroleum institute api filtration tests were conducted on phadjusted, aqueous dispersions of go and xanthan gum. Effect of cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide, a cationic surfactant, on. Drilling fluids ukeles major reference works wiley. This chapter deals with compositions for drilling muds and special chemicals used for drilling muds. The studies were conducted under laboratory conditions in sequencing batch reactors. Nonnewtonian plastic fluids where the viscosity is not constant, e. Six typical drilling fluids muds and a drilling fluid base were mixed with six soils at ratios of 1.
Drilling mud is a mixture of clay, water, weighting material, and chemicals, used to flush cuttings from the drill bit to the surface. Often used while drilling oil and natural gas wells and on exploration drilling rigs, drilling fluids are also used for much simpler boreholes, such as water wells. In this criteria, fluids are, classified as being waterbased mud fresh or salt, oil based fluids, air fluids and synthetic base fluids. Usages of excess biocides are threat to the environment and cause handling problems. Damage mechanism of oilbased drilling fluid flow in seepage. A novel solution for severe loss prevention while drilling. Pneumatic drilling operations require specialized equipment to help ensure safe management of the cuttings and formation fluids that return to surface, as well as tanks, compressors, lines, and valves associated with the gas used for drilling or aerating the drilling fluid or foam.
The main body of the book deals with the many aspects of the subject while the extensive appendices have been expanded and brought uptodate to cover the latest developments in drilling. Spe198737ms formulation of water based drilling fluid using. Effect of nanomaterial on the rheology of drilling fluids. Introduction international association of drilling. May 17, 2017 newtonian true fluids where the ratio of shear stress to shear rate or viscosity is constant, e. Over the years, the discovery of petroleum in various parts of the world. Formation damage due to drilling and fracturing fluids and. Drilling fluids serve many objectives in a drilling process, including the elimination of cuttings, lubricating and cooling the drill bits, supporting the stability of the hole and preventing the inflowoutflow of fluids between borehole and the formation. Excess fluid loss due to degradation of additives of drilling fluids causes a major problem in realtime drilling. Drilling fluids are designed to assist drilling by minimizing reservoir damage and increasing productivity of pay zone. In this study, the rheological properties and performances of mud prepared with geothermal spring water to be used by geothermal drilling operators were examined at ambient and elevated temperatures. Even today, many drilling mud products and systems are primarily evaluated and designed on the basis of their bingham yield point. Environmental protection agency epa has been studying reserve pit contents to determine whether oilfield wastes should continue under this exemption.
Show full abstract lubricating properties of drilling fluids was fundamentally examined by adding lignite nps into the waterbased drilling fluid. Graphene oxide as a highperformance fluidlosscontrol. Emulsion drilling fluids have shown improved performance compared to water based fluids in the field. A process for the in situ synthesis of nanoparticles nps into drilling fluids has been developed previously in our group and showed that calciumbased nps cnps and ironbased nps inps, respectively, with concentrations of 0. The fluids used during completions are often referred to as workover and completion woc fluids, clear brines andor packer fluids. Our wellbore shielding additives have enabled problemfree drilling in some of the worlds most troublesome formations. Smart drilling fluids containing fe 3 o 4 nanoparticles have advantages toward increasing the hydraulic efficiency of drilling operations in a variety of reservoir environments.
Composition and properties of drilling and completion. Several types of lost circulation materials lcm are used to heal such losses. This work presents the results of studies on the impact of spent drilling fluids cotreated with municipal wastewater on the rate of the wastewater treatment process and the structure of the community of eukaryotic organisms inhabiting an activated sludge. Selecting the most appropriate model for rheological. Designing a drilling fluid with improved rheological properties would be a solution to increase cuttings transportation efficiency. Exploring and optimizing the rheological behavior of such new drilling fluids is critical, implying direct and significant economic savings in developing new. A waterbased drilling fluid composition includes water and at least one rheology. Journal of petroleum science and engineering 2018, 164, 302310. Oilbased drilling fluids have been used increasingly in the north sea over recent years.174 802 631 647 959 726 1142 157 391 403 438 1374 919 68 606 162 1377 167 802 858 14 1195 155 608 1575 38 157 1289 975 1025 1235 731 1485 459 726 49 455